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High Blood Pressure in Children and Teens
What is high blood pressure in children and teens?
Blood pressure is a measure of how hard the blood pushes against the walls of the arteries as it moves through the body. It's normal for your child's blood pressure to go up and down throughout the day. But if it stays up, your child has high blood pressure. Another name for high blood pressure is hypertension.
What is normal and what is high blood pressure depends on your child's age, sex, and height. The numbers change as your child grows.
Blood pressure is described with two numbers. For example, a child's reading might be 96/57 or "96 over 57."
- The first number is the systolic pressure. It shows how hard the blood pushes when the heart is pumping.
- The second number is the diastolic pressure. It shows how hard the blood pushes between heartbeats, when the heart is relaxed and filling with blood.
What causes it?
Doctors can't always say what causes high blood pressure. But several things make a child more likely to develop it. These include having a family history of high blood pressure and being overweight. It also can be caused by medicines or by other health problems, such as sleep apnea or heart or kidney problems.
How is it diagnosed?
Children age 3 and older often have their blood pressure checked during routine doctor visits. If your child's blood pressure reads high, you may be asked to bring your child in again for another blood pressure check.
The doctor might have your child wear a portable device to measure blood pressure over 24 hours.
Your child may need more tests to check for illnesses that may be causing high blood pressure.
Why is high blood pressure a problem?
When blood pressure is a little high, it may increase the risk of health problems later in life.
If blood pressure is very high, it can cause serious and immediate damage to a child's body, especially the heart and brain. This type of high blood pressure is rare. With very high blood pressure, your child or teen may need more tests to find the cause.
How is high blood pressure treated in children and teens?
High blood pressure is treated in different ways. Treatment depends on how high the blood pressure is. When it's just a little high, doctors often treat it with lifestyle changes, like eating healthy foods and being more active.
If the blood pressure is higher, and if lifestyle changes don't help lower it, the doctor may recommend medicine.
If another health problem is causing the high blood pressure (secondary high blood pressure), and the levels are very high, treating the other health problem usually lowers the blood pressure. Your child may also need medicine to lower it.
How can you help your child lower high blood pressure?
Your doctor may suggest lifestyle changes to help lower your child's blood pressure. Try these tips:
- Help your child lose weight, if your child is overweight.
Eating healthy foods and being physically active are the best ways to do this.
- Encourage your child to eat healthy foods.
Help your child eat more fresh fruit and vegetables, fiber, and nonfat dairy products. And limit high-sugar and high-sodium foods and drinks.
- Help your child be more active.
Children need at least 1 hour of physical activity every day.
- Limit how much your child watches TV and plays video or computer games.
Set a goal of limiting these activities to no more than 2 hours a day.
- Work on lifestyle changes together as a family.
For example, try to eat as a family at regular times. And find an activity you all can do.
Current as of: August 31, 2020
Author: Healthwise Staff
Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD - Family Medicine
Adam Husney MD - Family Medicine
John Pope MD - Pediatrics
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